Statistics with R Part-1

Using R to to do statistics part -1

Diwash Shrestha https://diwashrestha.rbind.io/rstats-1
04-20-2019

In this post i will discuss about the statistics with R.This will be divided in to two blog posts.

Introduction

Statistics is a branch of mathematics working with data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation.Statistics is very important in Data Analysis ,Data Science and AI.

In this post we will learn about the descriptive statistics with R.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics is used to summarize the data and it focuses on Distribution , the central tendancy and dispersion of the data . In this section we will learn to work on

Measures for central tendency

Central tendency is a measure that best summarizes the data and is a measure that is related to the center of the data set.Mean, median, and mode are the most common measures for central tendency.

We will use mtcars dataset from the datasets package in R.


head(mtcars)

                   mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
Mazda RX4         21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
Mazda RX4 Wag     21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
Datsun 710        22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
Hornet 4 Drive    21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2
Valiant           18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1

Mean

The mean is the average of the data. It is the sum of all data divided by the number of data points. mean() function gives the mean of the data.


## mean of the mpg column
mean(mtcars$mpg)

[1] 20.09062

Median

The median is the Middle or midpoint of the data and is also the 50 percentile of the data. The median is not affected by the outliers and skewness of the data. Median() function is used to get Median.


## median of the cyl
median(mtcars$cyl)

[1] 6

Mode

Mode is a value in data that has highest frequency and useful when the differences are non-numeric and seldom occur.


 y <- table(mtcars$gear)

names(y)[which(y ==max(y))]

[1] "3"

“3” is the mode of the gear column.

Measures of variability

Measure of variability are the measures of the spread of the data. It can be range ,interquartile range, variance, standard deviation.

Range

Range is the difference between the largest and smallest points in the data. range() function is used to find the range in R.


range(mtcars$disp)

[1]  71.1 472.0

Interquartile Range

The interquartile range is the measure of the difference between the 75 percentile or third quartile and the 25 percentile or first quartile. IQR() function is used to get interquartile Range in R.


## IQR of sugar 
IQR(mtcars$wt)

[1] 1.02875

quantile() function is used to get quartiles in R.


## quartile of the sugar
quantile(mtcars$am)

  0%  25%  50%  75% 100% 
   0    0    0    1    1 

We can get the 25 and 75 percentiles of sugar in data.


quantile(mtcars$mpg, 0.25)

   25% 
15.425 

quantile(mtcars$mpg, 0.75)

 75% 
22.8 

Variance

The variance is the average of squared differences from the mean and it is used to measure the spreadness of the data. var() function is used to find the sample variance in R.


var(mtcars$mpg)

[1] 36.3241

var() and (N-1)/N is used to find the population variance.


N <- nrow(mtcars)
var(mtcars$mpg) * (N -1) / N

[1] 35.18897

Standard Deviation

The standard deviation is the square root of a variance and it measures the spread of the data.

sd() is used to find the sample standard deviation of a dataset.


## standard deviation of the calcium
sd(mtcars$mpg)

[1] 6.026948

Normal Distribution

Normal distribution is one of the most important theories because nearly all statistical tests require the data to be distributed normally. We can plot a distribution in R using hist() function.


hist(mtcars$mpg, breaks = 15)

qqnorm() and qqline functions are used to find whether data is normally distributed.


qqnorm(mtcars$mpg)
qqline(mtcars$mpg)

If the points do not deviate away from the line , the data is normally distributed.

Modality

The modality of a distribution is determined by the number of peaks it contains.


hist(mtcars$mpg, breaks = 15)

Skewness and Kurtosis

Skewness is a measurement of the symmetry of a distribution and how much the distribution is different from the normal distribution. Negative Skew is alos known as left skewed and positive skew is also known as right skewed. Th histogram from the previous section has a positive skew.

Kurtosis measures whether your dataset is heavy-tailed or light-tailed compared to a normal distribution. High Kurtosis means heavy tailed , so there are more outliers in the data. To find the kurtosis and skewness in R , we need moments package.


library(moments)

## skewness of the total_fat
skewness(mtcars$mpg)

[1] 0.6404399

## Kurtosis of the total fat
kurtosis(mtcars$mpg)

[1] 2.799467

summary() and str() function

The summary() and str() function are the fastest ways to get descriptive statistics of the data. We can get the basic descriptive statistics using the summary() function.


summary(mtcars)

      mpg             cyl             disp             hp       
 Min.   :10.40   Min.   :4.000   Min.   : 71.1   Min.   : 52.0  
 1st Qu.:15.43   1st Qu.:4.000   1st Qu.:120.8   1st Qu.: 96.5  
 Median :19.20   Median :6.000   Median :196.3   Median :123.0  
 Mean   :20.09   Mean   :6.188   Mean   :230.7   Mean   :146.7  
 3rd Qu.:22.80   3rd Qu.:8.000   3rd Qu.:326.0   3rd Qu.:180.0  
 Max.   :33.90   Max.   :8.000   Max.   :472.0   Max.   :335.0  
      drat             wt             qsec             vs        
 Min.   :2.760   Min.   :1.513   Min.   :14.50   Min.   :0.0000  
 1st Qu.:3.080   1st Qu.:2.581   1st Qu.:16.89   1st Qu.:0.0000  
 Median :3.695   Median :3.325   Median :17.71   Median :0.0000  
 Mean   :3.597   Mean   :3.217   Mean   :17.85   Mean   :0.4375  
 3rd Qu.:3.920   3rd Qu.:3.610   3rd Qu.:18.90   3rd Qu.:1.0000  
 Max.   :4.930   Max.   :5.424   Max.   :22.90   Max.   :1.0000  
       am              gear            carb      
 Min.   :0.0000   Min.   :3.000   Min.   :1.000  
 1st Qu.:0.0000   1st Qu.:3.000   1st Qu.:2.000  
 Median :0.0000   Median :4.000   Median :2.000  
 Mean   :0.4062   Mean   :3.688   Mean   :2.812  
 3rd Qu.:1.0000   3rd Qu.:4.000   3rd Qu.:4.000  
 Max.   :1.0000   Max.   :5.000   Max.   :8.000  

We can get the structure of the data using the str() function.


str(mtcars)

'data.frame':   32 obs. of  11 variables:
 $ mpg : num  21 21 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 ...
 $ cyl : num  6 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 4 6 ...
 $ disp: num  160 160 108 258 360 ...
 $ hp  : num  110 110 93 110 175 105 245 62 95 123 ...
 $ drat: num  3.9 3.9 3.85 3.08 3.15 2.76 3.21 3.69 3.92 3.92 ...
 $ wt  : num  2.62 2.88 2.32 3.21 3.44 ...
 $ qsec: num  16.5 17 18.6 19.4 17 ...
 $ vs  : num  0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 ...
 $ am  : num  1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
 $ gear: num  4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 ...
 $ carb: num  4 4 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 ...

In this blog i wrote about the basic or descriptive statistics with R. In another blog i will write about the inferential part of statistics which is very important used mostly in research and analysis.